Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index 2023 sees Netherlands return to the top spot and highlights potential of AI to improve retirement outcomes 

Index compares 47 retirement income systems, covering 64 per cent of the world’s population

NEW YORK, October 17, 2023 — Mercer and CFA Institute have released the 15th annual Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index (MCGPI). The Netherlands’ retirement income system has regained the top spot on the list, with Iceland and Denmark taking second and third places respectively. 

“The average age of populations around the world continues to rise in many markets, mainly more mature markets,” said Margaret Franklin, CFA, President and CEO, CFA Institute. “Inflation and rising interest rates have created a new market dynamic that poses significant challenges to pension plans. We also see continued fracturing as it relates to globalization. These are just a few of the increasingly complex challenges that pension funds face that impact retirees in significant ways.

“More and more often, individuals will have an increasingly important role to play as it relates to their own retirement. As investment professionals, we need to help them prepare for that. Each year, this index serves as a critical reminder that there is a long way to go in many jurisdictions to make pension plans function at their best and for the long-term financial security of beneficiaries.” 

The growing impact of AI and its benefits to members

In addition to identifying the world’s top pension systems, the report examines the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve pension and social security systems and provide people a better quality of life in retirement.

“The ongoing expansion of AI within the operations and decisions of investment managers could lead to more efficient and better-informed decision-making processes, which could potentially lead to higher real investment returns to pension plan members,” commented Senior Partner at Mercer and lead author of the study, Dr. David Knox. “AI also has the potential to improve member-engagement and help individuals make long-term decisions about their financial decisions. Both advances should improve retirement outcomes.”

The report, however, makes clear that AI is not without risks, including modeling challenges and ethical concerns as well as the need for optimal data privacy and cybersecurity. In developing these systems, it is essential that AI models have strong governance and clear accountability to reduce biases and unjustified responses. Safeguards are critical for pension plans to retain their members’ long-term trust. 

“AI by itself is not the complete answer. There will always be a need for human oversight. Despite these risks, AI has the opportunity to deliver a higher standard of living in retirement — a worthwhile objective for all pension systems,” Dr. Knox continued. 

By the numbers

The Netherlands had the highest overall index value (85.0), closely followed by Iceland (84.8) and Denmark (81.3). Argentina had the lowest index value (42.3). Although the Netherlands is currently undertaking significant pension reform, the system is well-positioned to provide excellent benefits amid the move from a collective benefit structure to a more individual defined contribution approach.

The Index uses the weighted average of the sub-indices of adequacy, sustainability, and integrity. For each sub-index, the systems with the highest values were Portugal for adequacy (86.7), Iceland for sustainability (83.8), and Finland for integrity (90.9). The systems with the lowest values across the sub-indices were South Korea for adequacy (39.0), Austria for sustainability (22.6), and the Philippines for integrity (25.7).

Falling birth rates have placed pressure on several economies and pension systems over the longer term, negatively affecting the sustainability scores for countries like Italy and Spain. Several Asian systems, however, including mainland China, Korea, Singapore, and Japan, have undertaken reform to improve their scores in the last five years.

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About the Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index (MCGPI)

The MCGPI benchmarks retirement income systems around the world, highlighting some shortcomings in each system, and suggests possible areas of reform that would provide more adequate and sustainable retirement benefits.

This year, the Global Pension Index compares 47 retirement income systems across the globe and covers 64 per cent of the world’s population. The 2023 Global Pension index includes three new retirement income systems – Botswana, Croatia, and Kazakhstan.

The Global Pension Index uses the weighted average of the sub-indices of adequacy, sustainability and integrity to measure each retirement system against more than 50 indicators.

The Global Pension Index is a collaborative research project sponsored by CFA Institute, the global association of investment professionals, in collaboration with the Monash Centre for Financial Studies (MCFS), part of Monash Business School at Monash University, and Mercer, a global leader in redefining the world of work and reshaping retirement and investment outcomes.

For more information about the Mercer CFA Institute Global Pension Index, click here.

*Updated as of November 2023

About Mercer

Mercer believes in building brighter futures by redefining the world of work, reshaping retirement and investment outcomes, and unlocking real health and well-being. Mercer’s approximately 25,000 employees are based in 43 countries and the firm operates in 130 countries. Mercer is a business of  Marsh McLennan (NYSE: MMC), the world’s leading professional services firm in the areas of risk, strategy and people, with more than 85,000 colleagues and annual revenue of over $20 billion. Through its market-leading businesses including MarshGuy Carpenter and Oliver Wyman, Marsh McLennan helps clients navigate an increasingly dynamic and complex environment. For more information, visit Follow Mercer on Twitter @Mercer and LinkedIn.

About CFA Institute

CFA Institute is the global association of investment professionals that sets the standard for professional excellence and credentials. The organization is a champion of ethical behavior in investment markets and a respected source of knowledge in the global financial community. Our aim is to create an environment where investors’ interests come first, markets function at their best, and economies grow. There are nearly 200,000 CFA® charterholders worldwide in more than 160 markets. CFA Institute has ten offices worldwide, and there are 160 local societies. For more information, visit or follow us on LinkedIn and Twitter at @CFAInstitute.

About the Monash Centre for Financial Studies (MCFS) 

A research centre based within Monash University's Monash Business School, Australia, the MCFS aims to bring academic rigour into researching issues of practical relevance to the financial industry. Additionally, through its engagement programs, it facilitates two-way exchange of knowledge between academics and practitioners. The Centre’s developing research agenda is broad but has a current concentration on issues relevant to the asset management industry, including retirement savings, sustainable finance and technological disruption.
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